Recovery Resources

Dharma Ocean members and practitioners from other abusive Vajrayana Buddhist groups often go through a period of trying to understand what happened during their training. Past students of Reggie Ray recommend these resources for Dharma Ocean recovery or healing from spiritual abuse in similar groups.




Signs of Spiritual Abuse by David Ward 

Beware the Charismatic Guru by John Snelling 

4 Personality Traits Cult Leaders Have in Common – Refinery 29 Interview with Janja Lalich

Traumatic Abuse in Cults: A Psychoanalytic Perspective by Daniel Shaw

How to Spot Narcissistic Abuse by Darlene Lancer

Maybe It Wasn’t the “Shambhala Teachings” That Changed Your Life: A Brief Note on False Attribution by Matthew Remski

Dangerous Cult Leaders by Joe Navarro

Judith Herman’s Checklist of PTSD Symptoms Experienced by Cult Survivors

Guidelines for Spiritually Abused Persons by Michael Langone

Articles by past Dharma Ocean members

BITE analysis for Dharma Ocean recovery 


Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation by Daniel Shaw

Fallout: Recovering from Abuse in Tibetan Buddhism – by Tahlia Newland 

The Gaslight Effect by Robin Stern

Take Back Your Life by Janja Lalich and Landau Tobias

Terror, Love and Brainwashing: Attachment in Cults and Totalitarian Systems by Alexandra Stein


Stephen Hassan: The BITE Model 

Daniel Shaw: Traumatic Narcissism The Psychology of Cult Leaders

Rachel Bernstein: Narcissists and Cult Leaders: Are You Being Controlled by One?

Facebook Groups

Descending the Mountain – DO specific

Group formerly known as Vajra Blades – DO specific (invite only)

Beyond the Temple

Survivors of Vajrayana Buddhist Abuse and Allies 


Alexandra Stein, PhD

Rachel Bernstein, LMFT

Daniel Shaw, LCSW

David Ward, PhD

Alliance for Buddhist Ethics